It’s clear that fish stocks of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) are now well above target levels, and banning the use of nets could have played a role in rebuilding that population. There’s been a decline in the harvest of mullet — a forage fish favored by sailfish. And Spanish mackerel, another forage source for billfish, is no longer overfished in the Gulf or Atlantic regions. Surface longlines were also removed from this rich zone. By 1990, it was clear that longlining for swordfish (Xiphias gladius) had taken a heavy toll on that species, with the average size of fish landed falling well below the size at which female swords begin spawning (about 150 pounds). There was a tremendous problem with surface longline bycatch mortality of swordfish below the legal minimum size. Too few lived long enough to reproduce. Prodded by conservation groups, including the WPBFC, Coastal Conservation Association (CCA), The Billfish Foundation (TBF) and the National Coalition for Marine Conservation (NCMC), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) finally protected what has been recognized as an important nursery ground for swordfish and a narrow migratory alley for swordfish and other species, including marlin that are too easily overharvested by industrial gear. This critical step may have brought this swordfish fishery back from the brink. And increased success in sailfishing closely follows these landmark conservation victories. Though it is possible that positive reproduction and recruitment cycles may also play a role, it seems likely, given the timeline and spike in numbers, that these management decisions influenced the sailfish fishery.