According to the authors, the longline effort peaked between 1999 and 2001 in both oceans and has declined since 2006 and 2008 for the Indian and Atlantic oceans, respectively. Currently, the effort is as much as 445 million hooks in the Indian Ocean and 395 million in the Atlantic. Threshold levels, meaning three consecutive years of overfishing, were exceeded first in the Atlantic, with white marlin, as early as 1964, with 75 million longline hooks, where they experienced overfishing for some 30 years. Overall, the number of years of overfishing for billfish stocks in the Atlantic has ranged from as little as 10 years for western Atlantic sailfish that started in 1998 at 292 million hooks to as long as 38 years for eastern Atlantic sailfish starting in 1975 at 175 million hooks. Blue marlin have been experiencing overfishing for 23 years — starting in 1990 with 300 million hooks — and overfishing is still occurring today.